EAS 2016 Meeting Poster Presentation

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Parent diets effect utilization of different lipids on the progeny

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The complete removal of fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) is required to promote the sustainable development of aquaculture and for that, fast growing high quality fish that are fed without FM and FO are necessary. Early nutritional programming may allow the production of fish better adapted to utilize diets with vegetable meals (VM) and oils (VO). The main objective of this study was to research in the potential value of fatty acids as modulators of early nutritional programming in marine fish for a better utilization of VO/VM. For that purpose gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) broodstock were fed four different replacement levels of FO by linseed oil (LO) and their effect on fecundity and spawn quality, egg composition, Δ-6-desaturase (Δ6D) gene expression, progeny growth performance and their growth response to a challenge with diets low in FO and FM, but high in VO and VM. The results showed that feeding gilthead sea bream broodstock with high LO diets had very long-term effects on the progeny. Thus, FO replacement by LO up to 80–100% in broodstock diets for gilthead sea bream not only reduced fecundity and spawn quality, but also growth of 45 dah and 4-month-old juveniles, as well as Δ6D gene expression. However, when the 4 month-old juveniles were fed with a low FM and FO diet, even those from broodstock fed only 60% replacement of FO by LO showed a higher growth and feed utilization than juveniles from parents fed FO. These results demonstrate the interesting potential of early nutritional programming of marine fish by broodstock feeding to improve long-term performance of the progeny. Further studies are being conducted to determine optimum nutrient levels in the broodstock diets and the molecular mechanisms implied to develop effective nutritional intervention strategies for this species.

Statement of relevance

This study demonstrates for the first time in fish the potential of broodstock nutrition to conduct early nutritional programming of culture fish for a better utilization of low fish meal and fish oil diets by the progeny, showing its effect not only during reproduction and larval development but also during on-growing.

 Link to article: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0044848615001908

Long time effects of parent’s diet and “reminder” programming effect of 16 month juveniles

Presented as a poster in Epiconcept Cost Action’s workshop Periconception Environment

26-29 April 2015, Dubrovnik, Croatia

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Nutritional programming is widely studied in vertebrates and it has been shown that nutritional stimuli during developmental stages may trigger short or/and longterm effects on several physiological functions of the organism. Studies about nutritional programming on different fish species also showed that functioning of certain metabolic pathways involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism of juveniles may be influenced by an early diet. Our research on sea bream revealed that nutritional programming through broodstock nutrition is very effective and improves the ability of 4 month juveniles to use vegetable oils (VO) and vegetable meals (VM). However, it is still unknown longer term effects of this type of programming. The present study examined the longterm influences of programming through broodstock nutrition in 16 month juveniles. Therefore, sea bream broodstock were fed four different replacement levels of fish oil (FO) by VO. FO replacement by VO affected growth of 45 day and 4 month-old juveniles, as well as Δ6 desaturase gene expression. Besides, when 4 month-old juveniles were fed with a VO-VM based diet, fish from broodstock fed VOs utilized more effectively this diet and showed a higher growth. Afterwards, all fish were fed with a standard fishmeal/FO based commercial diet for 16 months. Then, fish were challenged with a VM/VO based diets for 2 months. The results showed that the influence of parental feeding had disappeared on 16 month-old fish. However, those fish that were challenged at 4th month with a VM-VO based diet significantly showed the effect of parental feeding, suggesting that the nutritional challenge at 4 months may acted as a “reminder” effect added of the parental programming. Furthermore, long effects of nutritional programing and a remainder diet on fatty acids and gene expression involved in lipid metabolism were studied. Grant support:European Commission Directorate for Research & Innovation Grant A KBBE-2001-5-288925 (ARRAINA)

Meeting’s web page

Nutritional reprogramming in fish: Importance of developmental windows

Presented in Epiconcept Cost Action’s workshop Epigenomic Toolbox: from Methods to Models.

07-09 May 2014, Las Palmas, Spain

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Studies in mammals and humans show that dietary influences exerted at critical developmental stages early in life (neonatal nutrition, post-natal nutrition) may have long-term consequences on physiological functions in later life. Nutritional programming phenomenon is largely studied in mammalian models for the understanding of diseases such as the metabolic syndrome or diabetes. The functioning of certain metabolic pathways such as fatty acid metabolism in juvenile fish also depends on specific nutritional signals during the critical larval periods, demonstrating that the concept of metabolic programming also exists in fish. Modulation of key enzymes for fatty acid synthesis is possible by feed given to juveniles. The present study will examine the influences early nutritional programming either during embryonic phase or during metamorphosis. To affect nutrient intake during these two periods either broodstock or early weaning diets were modified and their effects studied on sea bream performance, lipid metabolism, gene expression and response after a feeding challenge. Specific genes such as those involved in essential fatty acids metabolism, were markedly affected by the nutritional programing at both developmental windows. For instance an up regulation of delta-6 desaturase gene expression was obtained when fish was conditioned with moderate levels of vegetable oils, whereas extreme conditioning conditions inhibited the expression. Despite it was potentially possible to condition fish during metamorphosis, the larvae were very sensitive during this period and high mortalities occurred during the treatment. When fishes were programmed through broodstock nutrition, a very high survival rate was obtained. Even extreme conditioning produced reliabe survival rates. After treatment with different conditioning during the embryonic period, all fish were fed standard fishmeal diet for three months and, afterwards, challenged with vegetable oils. A significant positive effect of the nutritional programming was observed in lipid metabolism response as well as a better utilization of the feeds. Grant support: European Commission, Directorate for Research & Innovation, Grant Agreement KBBE-2001-5-288925 (ARRAINA)

Meeting’s web page